# 山东11选五走势图: 电气工程毕业设计论文外文资料翻译.doc

第 39 页 西华大学毕业设计外文资料翻译 附录： 外文资料翻译 外文资料原文： A Virtual Environment for Protective Relaying Evaluation and Testing A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos and George J. Cokkinides Abstract—Protective relaying is a fundamental discipline of power system engineering. At Georgia Tech, we offer three courses that cover protective relaying: an undergraduate course that devotes one-third of the semester on relaying, a graduate courseentitled “Power System Protection,” and a three-and-a-half-day short course for practicing engineers. To maximize student understanding and training on the concepts,theory, and technology associated with protective relaying, we have developed a number of educational tools, all wrapped in a virtual environment. The virtual environment includes a) a power system simulator, b) a simulator of instrumentation for protective relaying with visualization and animation modules, c) specific protective relay models with visualization and animation modules, and d) interfaces to hardware so that testing of actual relaying equipment can be performed. We refer to this set of software as the “virtual power system.” The virtual power system permits the in-depth coverage of the protective relaying concepts in minimum time and maximizes student understanding. The tool is not used in a passive way. Indeed, the students actively participate with well-designed projects such as a) design and implementation of multifunctional relays, b) relay testing for specific disturbances, etc. The paper describes the virtual power system organization and “engines,” such as solver, visualization, and animation of protective relays, etc. It also discusses the utilization of this tool in the courses via specific application examples and student assignments. Index Terms—Algebraic companion form, animation, relaying,time-domain simulation, visualization. I. INTRODUCTION RELAYING has always played a very important role in the security and reliability of electric power systems. As the technology advances, relaying has become more sophisticated with many different options for improved protection of the system. It is indisputable that relaying has made significant advances with dramatic beneficial effects on the safety of systems and protection of equipment. Yet, because of the complexity of the system and multiplicity of competing factors, relaying is a challenging discipline. Despite all of the advances in the field, unintended relay operations (misoperations) do occur. Many events of outages and blackouts can be attributed to inappropriate relaying 第 40 页 西华大学毕业设计外文资料翻译 settings, unanticipated system conditions, and inappropriate selection of instrument transformers. Design of relaying schemes strives to anticipate all possible conditions for the purpose of avoiding undesirable operations. Practicing relay engineers utilize a two-step procedure to minimize the possibility of such events. First, in the design phase, comprehensive analyses are utilized to determine the best relaying schemes and settings. Second, if such an event occurs, an exhaustive post-mortem analysis is performed to reveal the root cause of the event and what “was missed” in the design phase. The post-mortem analysis of these events is facilitated with the existing technology of disturbance recordings (via fault disturbance recorders or embedded in numerical relays). This process results in accumulation of experience that passes from one generation of engineers to the next. An important challenge for educators is the training of students to become effective protective relaying engineers. Students must be provided with an understanding of relaying technology that encompasses the multiplicity of the relaying functions, communications, protocols, and automation. In addition, a deep understanding of power system operation and behavior during disturbances is necessary for correct relaying applications. In today’s crowded curricula, the challenge is to achieve this training within a very short period of time, for example, one semester. This paper presents an approach to meet this challenge. Specifically, we propose the concept of the virtual power system for the purpose of teaching students the complex topic of protective relaying within a short period of time. The virtual power system approach is possible because of two factors: a) recent developments in software engineering and visualization of power system dynamic responses, and b) the new generation of power system digital-object-oriented relays. Specifically, it is possible to integrate simulation of the power system, visualization, and animation of relay response and relay testing within a virtual environment. This approach permits students to study complex operation of power systems and simultaneously observe relay response with precision and in a short time. The paper is organized as follows: First, a brief description of the virtual power system is provided. Next, the mathematical models to enable the features of the virtual power system are presented together with the modeling approach for relays and relay instrumentation. Finally, few samples of applications of this tool for educational purposes are presented. II. VIRTUAL POWER SYSTEM The virtual power system integrates a number of application software in a multitasking environment via a unified graphical user interface. The application software includes a) a dynamic power system simulator, b) relay objects, c) relay instrumentation objects, and d) 第 41 页 西华大学毕业设计外文资料翻译 animation and visualization objects. The virtual power system has the following features: 1) continuous time-domain simulation of the system under study; 2) ability to modify (or fault) the system under study during the simulation, and immediately observe the effects of thechanges; 3) advanced output data visualization options such as animated 2-D or 3-D displays that illustrate the operation of any device in the system under study. The above properties are fundamental for a virtual environment intended for the study of protective relaying. The first property guarantees the uninterrupted operation of the system under study in the same way as in a physical laboratory: once a system has been assembled, it will continue to operate. The second property guarantees the ability to connect and disconnect devices into the system without interrupting the simulation of the system or to apply disturbances such as a fault. This property duplicates the capability of physical laboratories where one can connect a component to the physical system and observe the reaction immediately (e.g., connecting a new relay to the system and observing the operation of the protective relaying logic, applying a disturbance and observing the transients as well as the relay logic transients, etc.). The third property duplicates the ability to observe the simulated system operation, in a similar way as in a physical laboratory. Unlike the physical laboratory where one cannot observe the internal operation of a relay, motor, etc., the virtual power system has the capability to provide a visualization and animation of the internal “workings” of a relay, motor, etc. This capability to animate and visualize the internal “workings” of a relay, an instrumentation channel, or any other device has substantial educational value. The virtual power system implementation is based on the MS Windows multidocument-viewarchitecture. Each document object constructs a single solver object, which handles the simulation computations. The simulated system is represented by a set of objects—one for each system device (i.e. generators, motors, transmission lines, relays, etc). The document object can generate any number of view window objects. Two basic view classes are available: a) schematic views and b) result visualization views. Schematic view objects allow the user to define the simulated system connectivity graphically, by manipulating a single line diagram using the mouse. Result visualization views allow the user to observe calculated results in a variety of ways. Several types of result visualization views are supported and will be discussed later. Fig. 1 illustrates the organization of device objects, network solver, and view objects and their interactions. The network solver object is the basic engine that provides the time-domain solution of the device operating conditions. To maintain object orientation, each device is 第 42 页 西华大学毕业设计外文资料翻译 represented with a generalized mathematical model of a specific structure, the algebraic companion form (ACF). The mathematics of the algebraic companion form are described in the next section. Implementationwise, the network solver is an independent background computational thread, allowing both schematic editor and visualization views to be active during the simulation. The network solver continuously updates the operating states of the devices and “feeds” all other applications, such as visualization views,etc. The network solver speed is user selected, thus allowing speeding-up or slowing-down the visualization and animation speed. The multitasking environment permits system topology changes, device parameter changes, or connection of new devices (motors, faults) to the system during the simulation. In this way, the user can immediately observe the system response in the visualization views. The network solver interfaces with the device objects. This interface requires at minimum three virtual functions: Initialization: The solver calls this function once before the simulation starts. It initializes all device-dependent parameters and models needed during the simulation. Reinitialization: The solver calls this function any time the user modifies any device parameter. Its function is similar to the initialization virtual function. Time step: The solver calls this function at every time step of the time-domain simulation. It transfers the solution from the previous time step to the device object and updates the algebraic companion form of the device for the next time step (see next section “network solver.”) In addition to the above functions, a device object has a set of virtual functions comprising the schematic module interface. These functions allow the user to manipulate the device within the schematic editor graphical user interface. Specifically,the device diagram can be moved, resized, and copied using the mouse. Also, a function is included in this set, which implements a device parameter editing dialog window which “pops-up” by double clicking on the device icon. Furthermore, the schematic module interface allows for device icons that reflect the device status. For example, a breaker schematic icon can be implemented to indicate the breaker status. Finally, each device class (or a group of device classes) may optionally include a visualization module, consisting of a set of virtual functions that handle the visualization and animation output. The visualization module interface allows for both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) graphics. Presently, 2-D output is implemented via the Windows graphical device interface (GDI) standard. The 3-D output is implemented using the open 第 43 页 西华大学毕业设计外文资料翻译 graphics library (OpenGL). Both 2-D and 3-D outputs generate animated displays, which are dynamically updated by the network solver to reflect the latest device state. The potential applications of 2-D or 3-D animated visualization objects are only limited by the imagination of the developer. These objects can generate photorealistic renderings of electromechanical components that clearly illustrate their internal operation and can be viewed from any desired perspective,slowed down, or paused for better observation. III. NETWORK SOLVER Any power system device is described with a set of algebraicdifferential-integral equations. These equations are obtained directlyfrom the physical construction of the device. It is alwayspossible to cast these equations in the following general formNote that this form includes two sets of equations, which arenamed external equations and internal equations, respectively.The terminal currents appear only in the external equations.Similarly, the device states consist of two sets: external states[i.e., terminal voltages, v(t)] and internal states [i.e. y(t)]. Theset of (1) is consistent in the sense that the number of externalstates and the number of internal states equals the number of externaland internal equations, respectively. Note that (1) may contain linear and nonlinear terms. Equation(1) is quadratized (i.e., it is converted into a set of quadraticequations by introducing a series of intermediate variables and expressing the nonlinear components in terms of a series of quadratic terms). The resulting equations are integrated using a suitable numerical integration method. Assuming an integration time step h, the result of the integration is given with a second-order equation of the formwhere , are past history functions. Equation (2) is referred to as the algebraic companion form (ACF) of the device model. Note that this form is a generalizationof the resistive companion form (RCF) that is used by the EMTP [3]. The difference is that the RCF is a linear model that represents a linearized equivalent of the device while the ACF is quadratic and represents the detailed model of the device.The network solution is obtained by application of Kirchoff’s current law at each node of the system (connectivity constraints). This procedure results in the set of (3). To these equations, the internal equations are appended resulting to the following set of equations:(3)internal equations of all devices (4)where is a component incidence matrix withif node of component is connected to node otherwise is the vector of terminal currents of component k. Note that (3) correspond one-to-one with the external system states while (4) correspond one-to-one with the internal system states. The vector of component k terminal voltages is related to the nodal voltage vector by(5)Upon substitution of device (2), the set of (3) and (4) 第 44 页 西华大学毕业设计外文资料翻译 become a set of quadratic equations (6)where x(t) is the vector of all external and internal system states.These equations are solved using Newton’s method. Specifically,the solution is given by the following expression(7)where is the Jacobian matrix of (6) and are the values ofthe state variables at the previous iteration. IV. RELAY INSTRUMENTATION MODELING Relays and, in general, IEDs use a system of instrument transformers to scale the power system voltages and currents into instrumentation level voltages and currents. Standard instrumentation level voltages and currents are 67 V or 115 V and 5 A, respectively. These standards were established many years ago to accommodate the electromechanical relays. Today, the instrument transformers are still in use but because modern relays (and IEDs) operate at much lower voltages, it is necessary